A list of important events in history.
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Prehistory is the period of time before written history. This period is usually divided into three parts: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age. Each part is named after the material that was used to make tools and weapons during that time.
The first humans
The first humans are thought to have appeared on Earth between two and four million years ago. These early humans were hunter-gatherers, and over time they began to form tribes and develop basic tools and weapons. Around 10,000 BC, some of these tribes began to practice agriculture, and by 4,000 BC the first civilizations were emerging in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
During the next few thousand years, various civilizations arose in China, India, Greece, Rome, and other parts of the world. These cultures differed in many ways, but they all helped to shape the world as we know it today. Some of the most important events in history include the rise and fall of empires, the spread of religions, the discovery of new technologies, and the interaction between different cultures.
The first civilizations
The first civilizations developed in various locations around the world. The Fertile Crescent was an area in modern-day Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt where early farming and writing began. In China, theYellow River Valley was the birthplace of Chinese civilization. In India, the Indus River Valley was the site of an important early civilization. And in Central America, the Maya, Inca, and Aztec peoples developed rich cultures.
The first civilizations were greatly influenced by their geography. The Fertile Crescent had ample rainfall and easy access to rivers for irrigation, which made farming possible. The Yellow River Valley had rich soils that were good for farming, and the region also had resources like timber and coal that could be used for fuel and building materials. The Indus River Valley had a climate that supported crops like wheat and barley, and the region also had access to important trade routes. Central America had a tropical climate that supported crops like maize (corn), and the region also had abundant supplies of gold and silver.
The history of the world is usually divided into three parts: antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. Antiquity begins with the first human beings and extends to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 A.D.
The rise of Greece
The rise of Greece began in the 8th century BCE, when the Greek city-states emerged as independent entities following the decline of the Assyrian Empire. The city-states were separated by their dialects, culture, and customs, but they shared a similar religion, architecture, and art.
During this time, the most powerful city-states were Athens and Sparta. Athens was known for its maritime power, while Sparta was known for its military prowess. These two city-states were often at odds with each other, but they did ally against a common enemy: the Persian Empire.
In the 6th century BCE, the Persian Empire invaded Greece in an attempt to conquer it. The Persians were defeated in several crucial battles, notably at Marathon and Salamis. This victory marked a turning point in Greek history, as it showed that the Greeks were capable of defeating a far larger and more powerful empire.
Following the Persian Wars, Athens and Sparta turned their attention to each other. This conflict, known as the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE), ended with Athens’ defeat. However, Greece remained free from Persian rule and continued to be a major cultural force in the Mediterranean world.
The Roman Empire
In 275 BC, the Roman Republic was established. In 27 BC, the first Roman Emperor Augustus started the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, who ruled from 98-117 AD. Around 200 AD, the Severan dynasty came to power. In 285 AD, Diocletian became emperor and split the empire into eastern and western portions. In 312 Constantine I had the Edict of Milan issued, which provided for religious toleration in the empire. In 330 Constantine I moved the capital of the empire from Rome to Constantinople (Byzantium). The last Roman Emperor was Romulus Augustus, who was overthrown by Germanic chiefs in 476 AD.
The Middle Ages
The Middle Ages was a time period that lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It is often divided into three parts: the Early Middle Ages, the High Middle Ages, and the Late Middle Ages. During this time, there were many important events that shaped the world today. Some of these events include the fall of the Roman Empire, the Crusades, the Black Death, and the Renaissance.
The fall of the Roman Empire
The fall of the Roman Empire was a time of great upheaval and change. Many of the aspects of Roman society that we take for granted today began to fall away, and new ways of life and thought emerged. Here are some of the most important events in this period of history.
-The Roman Empire officially falls in 476 AD, when the last Roman emperor is overthrown by barbarian invaders.
-Over the next few centuries, barbarian tribes settle throughout the former empire, and life becomes very different from what it was under Roman rule.
-Christianity begins to spread during this time, and eventually becomes the dominant religion of Europe.
-The feudal system emerges during this period, as powerful landowners grant tracts of land to lesser nobles in exchange for loyalty and military service.
-The Norman Conquest takes place in 1066, when the Normans conquer England from the Anglo-Saxons. This marks the beginning of a new era in English history.
The rise of Islam
In the late 600s, a new religious group emerged in the Arabian Peninsula. This group was called Muslims, and their new religion was called Islam. The rise of Islam would have a profound impact on world history.
Islam began during a time of turmoil in the Arabian Peninsula. The region was inhabited by many Arab tribes who were constantly fighting each other. In 610, a man named Muhammad had a vision from God. Muhammad believed that he had been chosen to be a prophet, or messenger of God. He began preaching about his new religion, and over time he gained a following.
In 622, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution. This event is known as the Hijra, and it marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. In Medina, Muhammad continued to preach and gain converts. He also began to develop a system of laws for his community based on Islamic principles.
By the time of Muhammad’s death in 632, Islam had spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Under the leadership of Muhammad’s successors, known as caliphs, the Muslim armies began to conquer neighboring lands. Within a hundred years of Muhammad’s death, Muslim armies had conquered present-day Turkey, Iran, Iraq, North Africa, and Spain.
The rise of Islam had far-reaching consequences for world history. The Muslim world became a center of learning and culture. Islamic art and architecture had a significant impact on Europe and Asia. And the spread of Islam led to increased contact between cultures and helped to create a truly global civilization.
The Renaissance was a time of great cultural change and artistic creativity. It began in Italy in the late 13th century and spread throughout Europe. The Renaissance was a period of new ideas and discoveries in art, literature, philosophy, and science. It brought an end to the Middle Ages and ushered in the modern era.
The fall of Constantinople
In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell to the Ottoman Turks. This marked the end of the Roman Empire, which had begun in 27 BCE. The fall of Constantinople also ushered in a new era in history, known as the Renaissance.
The Renaissance was a period of great cultural and economic change in Europe. It began in Italy in the 14th century and spread to other parts of Europe over the next two centuries. During this time, art and learning flourished, and new ideas began to spread about politics, religion, and science.
The Renaissance was a time of great progress for Europe. However, it was also a time of great turmoil. The Protestant Reformation and the Thirty Years’ War both began during this period, and monarchs struggled to maintain control over their kingdoms. At the same time, advances were made in medicine, agriculture, and transportation. The Renaissance was truly a period of great change.
The discovery of America
The Renaissance was a period of great change and discoveries. One of the most important discoveries of the Renaissance was the discovery of America. This led to a new era of exploration and colonization. Other important discoveries during the Renaissance include:
-The heliocentric theory of the universe
-The printing press
The Modern Era
The modern era is a period of history that began after the Middle Ages. This epoch is characterized by great changes in the world, including the Renaissance, the Age of Exploration, the Reformation, the Industrial Revolution, and the French Revolution.
The French Revolution
The French Revolution was a major event in world history. It began in 1789 with the meeting of the Estates-General, a legislative body that had not met since 1614. The Estates-General was called to order by King Louis XVI in an effort to solve the financial crisis caused by France’s involvement in the American Revolution. However, the representatives of the Third Estate, which represented the majority of the people, were not content with the proposed solutions and decided to break away and form their own government.
The Third Estate declared itself the National Assembly, and began to drafting a constitution. In response, King Louis XVI attempted to flee the country, but he was caught and imprisoned. The National Assembly continued to work on a constitution, and in 1791 they approved the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which guaranteed basic rights for all citizens.
In 1792, war broke out between France and several other European countries. The war was initially successful for France, but by 1793 they had lost most of their gains. In addition, growing economic problems caused by inflation and high taxes led to widespread public discontent. This discontent erupted into violence in 1793 with the storming of the Bastille prison, which became a symbol of royal tyranny.
The violence continued throughout 1793 as radical Jacobins seized control of the government and instituted a Reign of Terror in an effort to crush internal opposition. Tens of thousands were executed or imprisoned, including many former members of the National Assembly. The Reign of Terror ended in 1794 with the arrest and execution of its leader Maximilien Robespierre.
In 1795 a new constitution was enacted that created a Directory, a five-member executive branch that oversaw a two-chamber legislature. However, this new government was also plagued by corruption and economic problems, which led to public discontent and eventually a coup d’état by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799. Napoleon instituted several reforms that helped stabilize France economically and politically, but he also became increasingly autocratic as his 12-year rule progressed. In 1814 Napoleon was defeated and exiled to Elba; Louis XVI’s grandson Louis XVIII ascended to the throne.
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and many of the technological innovations were of British origin.
The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the 19th century, eventually affecting most of the world. The impact of the Industrial Revolution was widespread and far-reaching. One consequence was the near doubling of the world’s population in just a century and a half, from 1 billion in 1800 to 2 billion in 1900.