During transcription, RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA helix and separates the two strands of the DNA double helix. RNA nucleotides then base-pair with the complementary DNA nucleotides.
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Transcription is the process of making an RNA copy from a DNA template. The RNA product is then used to direct protein synthesis or as part of another ribonucleoprotein complex.
There are three steps to transcription: initiation, elongation, and termination.
Initiation is the first step in transcription. It requires the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA template at a promoter region. This initiates RNA synthesis.
Elongation is the second step in transcription. It involves RNA polymerase moving along the DNA template and adding nucleotides to the growing RNA strand. The RNA product is complementary to the DNA template.
Termination is the third and final step in transcription. It requires RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule from the DNA template.
What is transcription?
Transcription is the process of making a copy of a DNA strand. During this process, RNA polymerase creates a complementary RNA copy from a template DNA strand. This complementary RNA copy contains the same information as the template DNA strand.
RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template
RNA polymerase is an enzyme that transcribes DNA to RNA. It binds to the DNA template and uses it as a guide to make complementary RNA.
The RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA template
The RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA template and reads it in the 3′ to 5′ direction. It then builds an RNA strand complementary to the template strand.
RNA nucleotides are added to the RNA strand
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzymes RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language that can be converted back and forth from DNA to RNA by the action of the correct enzymes. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase that produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript.
RNA polymerase reads the template strand of DNA in 3’ → 5’ direction and adds complementary nucleotides to generate an RNA molecule whose sequence is complementary to one strand of the coding region of the template DNA. After cleavage and ligation (attachment) of a 5’-cap and 3’-polyadenylation tail, the primary transcript is now mature mRNA ready to be exported out of the nucleus for translation into protein.
The RNA polymerase releases the RNA strand
The RNA polymerase releases the RNA strand, and the DNA double helix reforms.
In conclusion, transcription is the process of making an RNA copy from a DNA template. This RNA copy can then be used to produce a protein. Transcription involves the binding of RNA polymerase to a promoter region of DNA, the unwinding of the DNA double helix, and the synthesis of an RNA strand complementary to the template DNA strand. Transcription ends when RNA polymerase reaches a termination sequence.