- The American Revolution
- The Civil War
- World War I
- World War II
- The Cold War
A timeline is a way of organizing events in chronological order. It is often used to show the order of events in history, but it can also be used for other purposes.
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The American Revolution
The Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party was a protest by the American Colonists against the British government in 1773. The colonists were angry about the Tea Act, which allowed the British East India Company to sell tea in America without paying taxes. They dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed’s Hill, during the Siege of Boston in the early stages of the American Revolutionary War. The battle is named after its proximity to Bunker Hill in Charlestown, Massachusetts, which was peripherally involved in the battle. It was the original objective of both the colonial and British troops, though the majority of combat took place on the adjacent Breed’s Hill.
In response to the battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, General Thomas Gage, royal governor of colony of Massachusetts and commander-in-chief of all British forces in North America, sent troops to secure ammunition stores located in Lexington and Concord. On April 18th he received intelligence that Patriot militiamen were gathering at Roxbury and Cambridge in preparation for further attacks against his troops and supplies. As a result he dispatched approximately 700 troops under Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith to seize these supplies by force. These troops spirits were high as they believed that their mission would be supported by additional naval firepower from Boston Harbor.
Upon arrival in Lexington early on April 19th they found 77minutemen lined up on the village green under Captain John Parker waiting for them. The British column ordered the minutemen to disperse which they refused to do. A shot was fired from an unknown source which then lead to a volley from both sides followed by a bayonet charge by the British which drove the minutemen from Lexington green into cover behind stonewalls surrounding the green. The British then continued their march towards Concord with several small skirmishes along route including one at Menotomy (present day Arlington) where several more casualties were suffered by both sides but no clear victor emerged.
The Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is the most famous and iconic document in American history. It was written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776 and signed by the members of the Second Continental Congress in 1776. The Declaration of Independence proclaimed that the thirteen colonies were free and independent states, and it was the first step in the American Revolution.
The Civil War
The American Civil War was fought from 1861-1865. The main cause of the war was the disagreement over the issue of slavery and states’ rights. The war resulted in the death of over 600,000 soldiers and civilians.
The Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg marked a turning point in the Civil War, and its aftermath had a profound impact on the nation. The three-day battle resulted in more than 50,000 casualties, the largest number of any battle in the war. It also resulted in a Union victory that halted Confederate momentum and gave Abraham Lincoln the chance to issue his famous Emancipation Proclamation.
The Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation, issued on January 1, 1863, declared that all slaves in rebel territories were to be freed. This was a pivotal moment in the Civil War, as it shifted the focus of the conflict from simply preserving the Union to also freeing slaves.
The Battle of Vicksburg
The Battle of Vicksburg was the final major military action in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. In a series of maneuvers, Union Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant and his Army of the Tennessee crossed the Mississippi River and drove the Confederate Army of Mississippi, led by Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, into defensive works around the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi.
The siege of Vicksburg began on May 19, 1863, and culminated on July 4 when Maj. Gen. John C. Pemberton unconditionally surrendered to Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant after 47 days of siege and bombardment by land and sea, making it one of the longest sieges in American military history up to that point. This victory also opened up the interior southern states to Union control and further divided the Confederacy, putting a Union army in control of one critical navigable artery running through two major Confederate cities—and gave them an avenue to wage further war against another Confederate city along that same river: Memphis, Tennessee.”
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 was the trigger that set off a chain of events that led to the outbreak of the First World War.
The assassination took place in Sarajevo, Bosnia, where Franz Ferdinand was visiting with his wife, Sophie. The couple were driving through the city when they were shot by Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Young Bosnians, a nationalist group opposed to Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia.
The archduke’s death led to a series of diplomatic moves that saw Austria-Hungary declare war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Russia came to Serbia’s aid, leading to a declaration of war by Austria-Hungary’s ally Germany against Russia on 1 August 1914. France, another ally of Russia, then declared war on Germany on 3 August 1914.
On 4 August 1914, Britain declared war on Germany after it failed to comply with a British ultimatum to withdraw troops from Belgium, which Britain had guaranteed to defend against aggression. With these events, the Great War had begun.
The United States enters the war
The United States enters the war- On April 6, 1917, the United States formally enters World War I by declaring war on Germany.
Setbacks for the Allies- In the spring of 1918, the Allied armies began a offensive against the Germans, driving them back across France. However, this drive stalled in late September 1918. The Germans, in turn, mounted a massive counterattack at Verdun in early October 1918. This attack was turned back, but it came at a great cost to the Allies in terms of lives lost.
The Armistice is signed- On November 11, 1918, an armistice between Germany and the Allies is signed in Compiegne Forest in France. The treaty went into effect at 11 a.m., ending fighting on land, sea and air.
The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles signaled the end of World War I and was drafted at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The treaty set out the terms of peace between the Allies and Germany. It was signed on June 28, 1919, seven months after the Armistice that ended World War I.
The most important provisions of the treaty were as follows:
-Germany was to accept sole responsibility for causing the war.
-Germany was to pay reparations to the Allies for damage caused during the war.
– Germany’s overseas colonies were to be divided among the victors.
– The German Army was to be limited in size, and its capability for rearmament was restricted.
– Germany was not allowed to unite with Austria.
World War II
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
The following events occurred during World War II, in chronological order:
-1939: Germany invades Poland, marking the beginning of World War II.
-1940: Germany invades Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
-1941: German bombs damage London; the United States imposes an embargo on Japan.
-1941: The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor; the United States enters World War II.
-1942: The United States defeats Japan in the Battle of Midway.
-1945: The United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; Japan surrenders; World War II ends.
The United States enters the war
The United States enters the war
1. Japan attacks Pearl Harbor.
2. The United States declares war on Japan.
3. The United States declares war on Germany and Italy.
4. The Allied powers score several victories in Europe and the Pacific.
5. The United States drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
6. Japan surrenders, and World War II comes to an end.
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were a pair of nuclear attacks on the Empire of Japan during World War II (1939–1945). The United States dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, respectively. The bombings resulted in the immediate deaths of approximately 120,000 people; as unfortunately those included a great number of civilians, including children. In the two to four months following the bombings, an additional 60,000 to 80,000 people died from the effects of burns, radiation sickness, and other injuries, making the fatalities total more than 200,000. Japan surrendered to the Allies on August 15.
The war in Europe had concluded when Nazi Germany signed its unconditional surrender on May 8, 1945; however fighting continued in Asia, which culminated when Japan officially surrendered on September 2, 1945. On August 6 United States President Harry S. Truman (who had taken office after Roosevelt’s death in April), with consent from key advisors Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, issued Potsdam Declaration which called for “the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces”. The Japanese government at first ignored this ultimatum, but after their defeat at Battle of Okinawa (although still unaware that Soviet Union would declare war as per obtaining Japanese territories per previously signed Siberian Intervention pact), they accepted it on terms set out in Potsdam Declaration providing “that there would be no demand for Unconditional Surrender”.[13 + ] In response to news of Soviet Union’s impending entry into war against Japan (which was made public with declaration of war against Japan by Soviet Union declared a few hours before US dropped second nuclear bomb), top-ranking military officers in both countries recognized that Japan’s only recourse was to try and end hostilities quickly via diplomatic channels.
On August 8 (Tokyo time), having been notified by Washington D.C. that an acceptable reply had been given by Japan’s emperor Hirohito to the Potsdam Declaration, U.S. President Truman issued an order to proceed with dropping an atomic bomb “on one or more enemy cities”.[17 + ] At 8:15 pm local time on August 9,[18 + ] an atomic bomb code-named “Fat Man” was dropped from a B-29 Superfortress bomber piloted by Colonel Paul Tibbets over the city of Nagasaki. On August 15,[21 + ] Emperor Hirohito announced his decision to surrender unconditionally in a radio broadcast called either Gyokuon-hōsō (“Jewel Voice Broadcast”) or Tomodachi no Tame ni (“For My Friends”).[23 + ] In his radio address he said:
Despite the best that has been done by everyone … the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan’s advantage … Moreover, the enemy now possesses a new and terrible weapon with which human beings afflicted with it suffer torture and death …Should we continue to fight not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation but also it would lead to chaos throughout East Asia … The time has come when we must bear one mind before heaven and earth …”
The Cold War
The Cold War was a series of events that occurred between 1947 and 1991, when the world was divided between two superpowers: the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist United States. These events included the Berlin Blockade, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and the Vietnam War.
The Berlin Blockade
In an effort to stop the flow of refugees and to prevent the Western powers from rearming West Berlin, Stalin blockades the city in June 1948. The Allies respond by flying in supplies to keep the city running. The blockade is lifted in May 1949, but tensions between East and West continue.
The Korean War
The Korean War was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union. It began on 25 June 1950 and ended on 27 July 1953.
The Cuban Missile Crisis
The Cuban missile crisis was a pivotal moment in the Cold War. In October 1962, the world came to the brink of nuclear war when the Soviet Union began deploying nuclear missiles in Cuba. The United States responded by imposing a naval blockade on Cuba. After thirteen days of tense negotiations, the crisis ended when the Soviets agreed to remove their missiles from Cuba in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade the island.